Why Hard Drive showing Wrong Capacity in Windows?

If you have purchased a PC with a hard disk capacity of 500 GB and opened Windows Explorer and found that it is 440 GB. You would be wondering where rest of the gigabytes went. This can be attributed to several reasons like wrong amount of space, ranging from invisible shadow files, hidden recovery partitions, overhead formatting to deceptive storage capacities.

As far as hard drives, USB flash drives and other storage devices are concerned you might have noticed that they have less space after formatting. The hard drive manufacturers advertise devices against the way Windows computers uses them. One KB is 1000 bytes, one MB is 1000 and one GB is 1000 MB as per hard disk manufacturers are concerned.

RAM manufacturers do not sell in even groups of 1000 as they use groups of 1024. When memory is purchased an MB is 1024 KB, a KB is 1024 bytes and a GB is 1024 MB. Windows has calculated hard drives as powers of 1024 and manufacturers of hard drive use powers of 1000.

Hard drive_capacity

So there is a difference of about 35 GB against what the average buyer is led to believe it contains. If hard disks be advertised as per space they contained when connected them to Windows computer, 1 TB hard drive would be labeled as 931 GB hard drive. Windows could update User Interface to use proper definition of gigabyte.

Right-click your C: drive in Windows, one gets to see a certain amount of space as “Used Space”. If all the files on C: drive are selected, right-click them and choose Properties. The amount of space used is not equal to the amount of used space on your hard drive. There are certain type of files which do not appear in Windows explorer. The files which car called “shadow storage,” or “shadow copies,” do not appear here. Shadow storage contains System Restore points.

If you want to see the exact amount of storage used by shadow files on every hard drive attached to the system, run the command below. You would have to run it as an Administrator. Open a command prompt window as Administrator, look for Command Prompt in Start menu, right-click Command Prompt shortcut and choose Run as administrator.

Desktop and laptops have several partitions which includes a hidden recovery partition. A separate recovery partition does occupy some space in the new computer. You can use the Disk Management application included with Windows in order to check partition. Click Start, type partitions and choose the Create and format hard disk partitions shortcut in order to open it. In the disk management window hard drive should give its correct size.

How to stop Facebook from selling browsing data?

Facebook is not good at keeping user data confidential. It is believed that they sell browser data to advertisers. However the social networking giant does have a user friendly tag and says that it gives more control to users over the ads which they see. In fact it says “We never share information that personally identifies you, like your name and contact info, unless you give us permission”

This is an opt-out feature and this has to be done on a different site, not on Facebook itself. Could they be more difficult?


One cool feature that has come along with the changes is that you can click on the top-right of any advert and tell them that it’s not relevant to you, or ask why you are seeing the advert. You can also, from there, tell Facebook more about what sorts of adverts you’d prefer to see. The thing is that the number of advertisements would not change. Basically more relevant adverts would be shown to you.

Opt-Out of Sharing

In order to avoid sharing the browsing data in the web browser, go to the digital advertising alliance opt out. You would have to disable ad-blocker in order to use it. Go to “Companies Customizing Ads for Your Browser” and then choose Facebook from list. You can add other companies and click “Submit” when done.

However nothing would stop Facebook from collecting information in the first place. They would not share it with advertisers. One can opt out on the mobile devices by using tools that iOS and Android provide. For iOS go to General > Restrictions > Advertising and toggle the switch under Privacy for “Limit Ad Tracking”. Go to Google Settings > Ads > Opt Out of Interest-Based Ads for Android.

Speed up PC boot time

Windows take long time to start up the PC. This can be caused by issues like faulty hard drive for an older PC to start. This can be caused by hardware problem. However the programs which are trying to activate while booting are the main perpetrators.

The more programs installed on the system, there would be more apps which you would like to add into the startup. Some of these are important and should not be disabled like the antivirus. Task manager has been added to Windows 8.1.


You can maximize start up time as well as find out the programs that are slowing the user’s activities. Check the startup programs. Just press control, alt and delete on the keyboard and then on next screen choose Task Manager with the mouse. Now you would be directed to the desktop. In Task Manager Window, click on Startup tab. You would get to see list of programs which are disabled when the desktop is booted.

The Startup impact column and those with “High” rating programs would be disabled at startup. The programs you would have to disable would be started later on if you want to use it. Antivirus would have a high rating but it would be a mistake if it is disabled at start up as you want the PC to be scanned always.

After done with highly influential programs, you can take a look at the ones with average crash to flush out other offenders. You would have to decide the programs which get dumped initially. Never disable something which works in the backdrop or something that is from PC manufacturer or a well known firm or is something critical in nature.

Windows 7


Windows 7 user should be clicking start, then start up and check what is there. The first thing a Windows 7 user should do is click Start > Startup and see what’s there. The folder has all third party apps which activate at start-up. In case you want to get rid of some program then right-click it and choose delete.

You can also get a window that is similar to what the Windows 8.1 users get to see through the Windows System Configuration Utility. You would have to just download it. Click Start > Run and type msconfig in the box which appears. As the configuration utility starts up, search under the Startup tab.

Windows 7 has less friendly approach and is not inclusive of helpful startup impact details. This is the window for advanced users. If you get to see programs like Quick time, Google Chrome and Skype it can be disabled by unchecking the box which is next to their names.

It would take some time to figure out the programs that should be disabled on your PC. Do take out some time if you want reduced boot time.

What is the function of a firewall?

It is commonly known that Firewall is an imperative protection provided to PCs. This application is between the system and other network which controls the outgoing and incoming network traffic. It would depend on the rules of firewall as to which traffic is allowed and which is not.

Most people use routers at home in order to share internet connection between several devices. A system that is connected directly to the internet would have a public IP. So any netizen can reach it. Any network services that are running on the computer like that which comes with Windows for printer sharing and file, remote desktop would be accessible by the netizen.

Microsoft had introduced Firewall in Windows XP Service Pack 2, and it finally enabled a by default firewall in Windows. A firewall would obviously drop all incoming connections unless it has been specifically configured to allow incoming connections.

This would not allow people on the Internet from connecting to local network services on your system. It even controls access to the network services from other computers on local network. This is why user is asked as to what type of network it is when connected to Windows. If connected to home network the firewall provides access to these services. If it is connected to public network, the access would be denied by the firewall.

function of firewall

In case a network service is configured that no net connection would be allowed, there is a possibility that the services has security lapse and customized request would allow the attacker to run some code on the system. This would be prevented by the firewall thereby preventing the incoming connections from reaching these susceptible services.

Firewalls sit between a network say the Internet and the computer but it is protecting. Its main purpose for home users is blocking unnecessary incoming network traffic. It can also analyze the traffic that leaves or reaches the network as well as decides what can be done with it. Say for instance, a firewall could b configured in order to block some types of outgoing or suspicious traffic or even all transfer.

A firewall does have certain rules which denies as well as allows certain types of traffic. Say for instance it could allow connections to the server from specific IP address thereby dropping all link requests from somewhere else for safety.

Firewalls run in the laptop. It can also be a out-and-out hardware used for a corporate network. Corporate firewalls could examine outgoing traffic thereby ensuring that no malware was communicating through the network or observe employee’s network use as well as filter traffic. One can configure a firewall to only allow web browsing traffic and other applications.